Blog Archives

Film Scripts

Collection of film scripts


Go Into The Story


Rian Johnson

  • BrickThe Brothers Bloom and Looper: Johnson’s scripts are available from his website.


David Seidler


Story List

Collection of stories (PDF or online)


Forty Two Stories: New Writing from Harper Perennial


Chris Adrian


Kevin Barry


Ambrose Bierce


Ray Bradbury


Frederick Brown


John Cheever


Kate Chopin


Arthur C. Clarke


Roald Dahl


Neil Gaiman


Gabriel García Márquez


Brothers Grimm


Shirley Jackson


Franz Kafka


Jhumpa Lahiri


DH Lawrence


David Marcus


Steven Millhauser


Alice Munro


Vladimir Nabokov


Frank O’Connor


Liam O’Flaherty


Edgar Allen Poe




Tobias Wolff

Poem List

Collection of poems (PDF or online)


Fleur Adcock


Maya Angelou


WH Auden


Samuel Beckett


William Blake


Eavan Boland


Anne Bradstreet


Lewis Carroll


Charles Causley


Tony Connor


Walter de la Mare


Carol Ann Duffy


TS Eliot


James Fenton


Robert Frost


Mary Elizabeth Frye


Neil Gaiman


Wilfrid Gibson


Tony Harrison


Seamus Heaney


Robert Herrick


George Manley Hopkins


Phoebe Hesketh


Elizabeth Jennings


John Keats


DH Lawrence


Laurie Lee


Liz Loxley


Andrew Marvell


Roger McGough


Paula Meehan


Ogden Nash


Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin


Frank O’Hara


Leanne O’Sullivan


Wilfred Owen


Linda Pastan


Patrick Pearse


Edgar Allan Poe


Craig Raine


James Reeves


Michael Rosen


Christina Rossetti


Vernon Scannell


Ian Serraillier


Dylan Thomas


Steve Turner


William Wordsworth


Thomas Wyatt


WB Yeats

Film Revision: Key Words

Key words

  • Close-up: Used to film just the head or face.
  • Cut: An instant change from one frame to another.
  • Deep focus: Foreground, middle ground and background are all in focus.
  • Dissolve: A move between two shots (i.e. a transition) during which the first image gradually disappears while the second image gradually appears

Example of a dissolve from Citizen Kane.

  • Extreme close-up: Used to film very small details closely.
  • Fade-in: Necessary for the beginning of a scene. A dark screen gradually brightens as the shot appears.
  • Fade-out: A shot gradually darkens as the screen goes black.
  • Fourth wall: Audience occupies the fourth wall, looking in on what is happening (as in a theatre). Breaking the fourth wall happens when a character addresses the audience, turns to the camera, comments on the fact they are aware that they are in a play etc.

Example of breaking the fourth wall from Miranda.

Example of breaking the fourth wall from Whatever Works.

  • Frame: Single image.
  • Long Shot: Framing in which the scale of the object shown is small.
  • Melodrama: Music swells and carries emotion.
  • Mise en scène: Everything on camera (costumes, lighting, colour, location, situation of objects and characters, etc.).
  • Montage: Sequence of images or scenes used to compress the passage of time, suggest memories, summarise a topic, etc.

Example of a montage from Up.

  • Pathetic Fallacy: Attributing human emotions to inanimate objects, animals, or aspects within nature. In other words, the atmosphere/setting echoes the mood/thoughts/emotions/conduct of the protagonist. It is an external expression of internal states and the inner protagonist becomes connected with the environment/outside world. In other words, it establishes metaphorical links between objects of abstracts. (Basic examples include rain when a character is upset or a beautiful landscape during a happy moment.)

Example of pathetic fallacy from Snow White. Note the difference in weather when the disguised Queen arrives and when she leaves.

  • Point of view: There are a few variations of POV shots. Typically, it’s a shot taken where the camera is placed where the character’s eyes would be, showing what the character would see (i.e. the character is in possession of the perspective and we are looking through their eyes).

Example of a POV shot from Vertigo.

  • Wipe: Type of transition in which the screen ‘wipes’ from one frame/scene to another, creating an overlap – as one scene disappears, another replaces it.

Examples of wipes, used in Star Wars III: Revenge of the Sith.


Panning: Camera swivels on its axis.panning

Tilting: Up-down movement.tilting

Tracking/Trucking: Mounted camera moves following the action.

Example of tracking from The Shining.

Trunk Shot: Specialised low-shot angle which captures the scene above from inside a trunk.

Example of trunk shot in Kill Bill: Vol. 1. Warning: contains blood!

LC Ordinary Paper I Format

Paper 1 is worth 200 marks – half of the marks for Leaving Certificate English.

There are two sections in the paper: Comprehending and Composing.

The paper contains three texts on a general theme. Familiarise yourself with all three texts before selecting which text to answer on. You must do Question A one one text and Question B on a different text – you cannot answer Question A and B on the same text.

Read all of the questions to determine which questions you will answer.

Once you have chosen your texts/questions, re-read the questions (underlining the key words) before reading the text. This will help you identify what you are looking for in text.

While reading the text, underline any information relevant to your answers.

Paper One: 170 minutes (2 hrs 50 mins)

Selecting questions: 5 mins.

Section I: 80 minutes.

Section II: 80 minutes.

Checking over paper: 5 mins.

Section I – Question A (50 marks): 40 mins.

You are not allowed do Question A and Question B from the same text.

When answering make one paragraph (approx. 8 lines) for every 5 marks – for example, you should make 3 paragraphs for a 15 mark question and 2 paragraphs for a ten mark question.

In each paragraph, make a statement, support with evidence from the text and explain your answer as much as you can.

Recommended length of answers:

(i) 1/2 to 3/4 page.

(ii) 1/2 to 3/4 page.

(iii) 1/2 page each (1 page total for (a) and (b)).

Section I – Question B (50 marks): 40 mins.

You are not allowed do Question A and Question B from the same text.

Question B will involve writing one of the following: letter, diary, speech, article, report or review for 50 marks.

When answering this question, be aware of using the correct type of language:

Language of Information
Language of Argument
Language of Narration
Language of Persuasion
Language of Aesthetics

Plan your answer carefully in your booklet. Keep in mind the form (e.g. diary entries and letters have different formats), the audience and the register (language appropriate to the task, for example speeches would be formal, logical, well-informed, organised, etc.).

Recommended length of answer: 1.5 to 2 pages.

Section II (100 marks): 80 mins.

This is a very important question in the whole of the two papers because this single question is worth 25% of your total exam result.

There will be seven questions in Section II. They will be linked to the texts in some way, and the titles will range over the five language genres listed above. You are allowed to refer to the texts if necessary, and you may also draw ideas from the texts or the images which accompany them.

Choose one out of seven questions – there will be a short story, an argument or a speech, a personal essay, and the text of a talk. Choose the question with the genre you are most comfortable with and have practised – if you have been practising short stories, you should choose a short story question.

When planning and writing your answer, consider the purpose (must I write a speech, a short story, etc.?), the audience and the register.

Remember to divide your work into paragraphs and be aware of language use.

Recommended length of answer: 3-4 pages.